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Headaches and Hormones – Is there a connection?

A woman experiencing headache

Headaches are a common ailment experienced by people of all ages, but did you know that hormones can play a significant role in the development and severity of these headaches? The connection between headaches and hormones is a complex one, with multiple factors at play.

In this article, we’ll explore the relationship between hormones and headaches, shedding light on the different types of headaches influenced by hormonal changes, and offering insights into managing and preventing hormone-related headaches. There are also symptoms of hormone imbalance that you can look out for.


Understanding the Hormonal Influence  

Hormones are chemical messengers produced by various glands in the body, and they play a crucial role in regulating numerous bodily functions.

Hormonal fluctuations can significantly impact the body, leading to changes in blood flow, inflammation, and sensitivity to pain, which can trigger migraines. Here’s how some of the most common hormones affect headache development: 


Oestrogen, a female sex hormone, has a profound impact on the body. Its levels fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. These fluctuations are linked to different types of headaches: 

Menstrual Migraines –  Many women experience migraines around the time of their menstrual period. These headaches often occur just before or during menstruation, when oestrogen levels drop. 

Birth Control and Hormone Replacement Therapy –  Hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy can also influence oestrogen levels and trigger headaches in some individuals. 

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Progesterone is another female sex hormone, and its fluctuations can also contribute to headaches: 

Menstrual Migraines –  Like oestrogen, changes in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle can be a trigger for migraines in some women.   


Cortisol, known as the stress hormone, plays a role in the body’s response to stress and can influence headache development: 

Tension Headaches – Elevated cortisol levels due to chronic stress can lead to tension headaches, which are often described as a band-like pressure around the head. 

Thyroid Hormones  

Thyroid hormones, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), regulate metabolism and can impact headaches: 

Hypothyroidism Low thyroid hormone levels can lead to hypothyroidism, which is associated with tension headaches and migraines. 

Hyperthyroidism Conversely, overactive thyroid function can also cause headaches, though these headaches may be less common. 


Types of Hormone-Related Headaches

 There are several types of headaches associated with hormonal fluctuations. Understanding the characteristics and triggers of these headaches can help individuals recognize and manage them effectively: 

Menstrual Migraines  

Menstrual migraines are intense, throbbing headaches that occur around the time of menstruation. They are typically triggered by the drop in oestrogen levels just before menstruation begins. These migraines can be extremely debilitating, with symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. 

Hormone-Induced Migraines

In addition to menstrual migraines, other hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy, menopause, or the use of hormone-based medications, can trigger migraines. For instance, women going through perimenopause and menopause often experience fluctuations in oestrogen and progesterone, which may lead to more frequent and severe migraines.

Tension Headaches

Tension headaches are often associated with chronic stress and elevated cortisol levels. These headaches are characterised by a constant, dull, and pressing pain on both sides of the head. They may be triggered or exacerbated by stress and are often related to muscle tension. 

Hypothyroidism-Related Headaches 

Hypothyroidism, a condition characterised by low thyroid hormone levels, can lead to various symptoms, including fatigue, weight gain, and headaches. These headaches may resemble tension headaches and can be a result of altered blood flow in the brain due to an underactive thyroid. 


The connection between headaches and hormones is a multifaceted one, with various hormones impacting different types of headaches. Understanding these relationships and identifying triggers can empower individuals to manage and prevent hormone-related headaches effectively.

If you’re experiencing chronic headaches or suspect hormonal factors are at play, it’s essential to consult a healthcare provider for a comprehensive evaluation and personalised treatment plan.

With the right approach, individuals can find relief and better manage their hormone-related headaches, improving their overall quality of life. 

Disclaimer: Health articles on medical conditions are for information only and do not form a basis for diagnosis. We recommend that if you have any concerns, speak to your doctor or pharmacist for further help and guidance.

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